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LEDs are light emitting diodes. These are electronic components that convert electrical energy directly to light through the movement of electrons within the material of the diode. LEDs are important because due to their efficiency and low energy, they are beginning to replace most conventional light sources.

The term solid state lighting is used because the electronics produce light directly from solid materials in which the electrons are embedded. This is unlike other technologies, for example fluorescent technology, which requires a gaseous discharge medium to initiate production of light.

The Martians, alarmed by the approach of a crowd, had killed a number of people with a quick-firing gun, so the story ran. The telegram concluded with the words: "Formidable as they seem to be, the Martians have not moved from the pit into which they have fallen, and, indeed, seem incapable of doing so. Probably this is due to the relative strength of the earth's gravitational energy." On that last text their leader-writer expanded very comfortingly.

LED chips are mass produced in millions and there are inevitably slight differences in color appearance and light output. Binning is way of sorting the chips so that all the LEDs from one particular bin look the same and have similar light output.

A light engine is the LED equivalent of a conventional lamp. It normally consists of a LED chip mounted on a circuit board that has electrical and mechanical fixings, meaning it is ready to be fixed in the luminaire. Note that the light engine may not consist of only one chip; it may be an array of 9 or 16, sometimes with a phosphor coating.

LEDs are made of electronic components that need to be packaged together to offer long lasting efficient light sources to the end user. Apart from the LED chip itself which has sapphire and gallium in the semiconductor, the process of packaging with materials like ceramic, rare earth phosphors, silicone, solder and gold wire add to the overall cost. White LEDs require further tests for calibration and standardization.

Although the initial cost of conventional light sources is less than LEDs, the operational and maintenance costs of LED are significantly lower. LEDs, having a longer life, reduce maintenance and lamp replacement cost. . Because LEDs need to be replaced less frequently, the owner spends less on new lamps and the labor needed to change them. LEDs also consume less energy; thus the overall cost of a LED system can be significantly lower than that of conventional lighting systems. Most applications with LEDs offer a payback period as low as three to four years.

Some of the strategies for reducing the cost of LEDs in the future are:
Reduction in the production process. Simplification and reduction in the number of components. Introduction of new materials.

1:-Low Power Led- up to 0.2W
2:-Mid Power Led- up to 1.0W
3:-High Power Led- up to 5.0W

LEDs can produce concentrated beams of light at specific frequencies of light. While sunlight comprises the entire spectrum of light, LEDs can be designed to emit specific parts of the light spectrum that activate certain photoreceptors in the plant. For example, blue light promotes phototropism and cryptochromes which help germination and elongation of the plant, while red light stimulates phytochromes which help the plant to flower at the optimum time. Regulation of the spectrum of light based on the plants life cycle promotes faster growth, and a stronger plant than what would be produced under sunlight conditions.
Note that the light output of LEDs lessens at higher temperatures. You should make sure that the luminaire is suitable for the environmental conditions.

LEDs have the following advantages over neon:
Power consumption: LEDs use much less power than neon to deliver the same light output. Versatility: LEDs offer a far wider a range of products and configuration of solutions than neon. Neon lights have limitations due the nature by which they produce light and the way they are fabricated.
Heat dissipation: LEDs produce less heat than neon. Safety: Neon lights runs on high voltage and are unsafe when positioned in places where people can touch them. Neon lights use fragile glass tubes.
Color range and effects: LEDs offer a wider palette of colour and color changing effects through digital control.
Maintenance: LEDs need virtually no maintenance compared to neon.

LEDs do not emit ultra-violet light and do not carry heat in the beam, unlike their conventional counterparts. This helps keep food fresher in refrigerators and cold stores.

LEDs have the capability to offer “biologically optimised” solutions that simulate the color temperature of the sky. This have been proven to improve concentration and maintain alertness of students in classrooms. It has successfully dealt with a kind of morning tiredness in mostly observed in young people. One way of creating the appropriate color temperature is by using a combination of independently controlled blue and white LEDs.

Use of tunable LEDs in aircrafts can help alter the circadian rhythms of the passengers. The time-controlled simulation of daylight, noon and dusk color temperatures with the LEDs in the aircraft can help passengers to gradually adapt to the time zone of the destination.

LEDs work more efficiently in cold temperatures and their lifecycle is extended since the cold air offers a passive heat absorption mechanism. This gives LEDs an advantage in various applications like ice-skating rings / tracks, refrigeration applications, and lighting public places in colder countries.

Research is being conducted into the development of LEDs that can not only provide light, but also offer internet connectivity through “Li-fi” technology. By increasing the flicker rate of LEDs, data can be transmitted to specially adapted laptops and electronic devices via the visible spectrum, instead of via the currently used radio and microwaves.

Zhaga is an industry-wide consortium aiming to standardize specifications for interfaces between LED luminaires and light engines. The aim is to permit interchangeability between products made by different manufacturers. Zhaga defines test procedures for luminaires and LED light engines so that the luminaire will accept the LED engine.

BEE The Government of India set up Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). on 1st March 2002 under the provisions of the Energy Conservation Act, 2001. The mission of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency is to assist in developing policies and strategies with a thrust on self-regulation and market principles, within the overall framework of the Energy Conservation Act, 2001 with the primary objective of reducing energy intensity of the Indian economy.

ANSI (American National Standard Institute) - Establishes definitions of solid state lighting devices and components. It also provides a common terminology. IESNA (Illuminating Engineering Society of North

America) - Provides procedures for reproducible measurements of photometry, color and electrical characteristics of solid state lighting products.

UL (UnderwritersLaboratories) - Writes safety standards for LED products including drivers, controllers, arrays, packages and modules.

NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers

Association) - makes recommendations for mechanical, thermal and electrical interfaces between luminaires.

CELMA is the Federation of National Manufacturers Associations for Luminaires and Electrotechnical components in the European Union. CELMA along with ELC, (European Lamp Companies Federation) provides standards and guides for LED lighting in Europe.

In India, every Light Fitting must have CRS logo .This tells you that the seller claims that the fitting conforms to all the relevant Indian safety standards. The most important of these is IS 10322/EN 60598 which covers electrical, thermal and mechanical safety.

LEDs are low voltage devices. Therefore, they require a device / Power supply unit / driver, or integrated electronics that convert line voltage to low voltage in order to run the LEDs. Sometimes The driver has electronics that can interpret control signals to dim LEDs.

LEDs are driven by constant current (350mA, 700mA or 1A) drivers or constant voltage (10V, 12V or 24V) drivers.

Fix the current of the system and vary the voltage depending on the load of the LED.

Constant voltage drivers require a fixed voltage, and the LED loads are added in parallel across the output of the driver until maximum output currents are reached.

Constant current drivers are typically used in downlights where one, or a series, of luminaires is used per driver. These are connected in series and parallel.

The LED rating of a product is usually noted in milliamps, mA or volts, V. Products rated in mA can be used with a constant current driver, while those rated in volts can be run with a constant voltage driver. LEDs designed for constant current drivers cannot run with constant voltage drivers.

Vf is the term used for the LEDs forward voltage. It is the voltage required to activate the LED and produce the output specified, assuming that it is drawing the recommended current.

The maximum permissible distance is dependent on the LED load, the conductor size, and the driver used. There is little practical limit on the distance between the driver and LED if you are using a constant current driver because it increases the output voltage to overcome any volt drop caused by the cable length. The distance between the LEDand the driver is more important for constant voltage drivers where there is a voltage drop due to the load and length of cable.

The maximum permissible distance is dependent on the LED load, the conductor size, and the driver used. There is little practical limit on the distance between the driver and LED if you are using a constant current driver because it increases the output voltage to overcome any volt drop caused by the cable length. The distance between the LEDand the driver is more important for constant voltage drivers where there is a voltage drop due to the load and length of cable.

LEDs driven by 24V drivers have longer permissible distances between light source and driver compared to 12V DCLEDs. 12V LEDs are usually suitable for applications where low light outputs are required. 24V LEDs offer products with higher outputs than 12V products.

Is it true that some LEDs can be directly connected to the mains voltage power?

LEDs are inherently low voltage devices and require drivers. However, many LED products in the market come with built-in drivers and hence can be directly connected to the mains voltage.

LED drivers need to be mounted in a ventilated space. Access to the driver needs to be provided for general maintenance purposes. The IP (ingress protection) rating of the driver needs to be considered before finalizing the mounting location of the driver (only those drivers designed for outdoor environments can be located outdoors). The distance between the driver and the light source needs to be taken into consideration in order to prevent voltage drop, which results in reduced output of the LEDs.

LEDs are dimmed either by Pulse Width Modulation PWM, or by Constant Current Reduction CCR. PWM dimming involves switching current at a high frequency from zero to the rated output current. CCR dimming: The lighting level required is proportional to the current flowing through the LED. Current flows through the LED continuously and is reduced or increased based on whether the LED is to be dimmed further or made brighter.Pre

Following are the advantages of PWM dimming:
Smooth dimming capability
More precise output levels
Better consistency in color over various levels

Following are the disadvantages of PWM dimming:
Relatively more expensive Flicker perceived in peripheral vision if the driver is run below 100Hz frequency Stroboscopic effect evident in fast moving environments when the driver frequency is low.

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) issues due to rise and fall of the current in PWM dimming.

Performance issues arise when the driver is mounted remotely from the light source.Pre

CCR dimming is good in:
Outdoor applications and damp locations.

Places that have strict EMI requirements like medical suites.

Places where there is a lot of motion and rotary machinery. Applications where the drivers are to be placed at long distances from the light source.

Although LED products are marked as compatible with traditional dimmers, there are various degrees to which LEDproducts are compatible with incandescent dimmers. Compatibility needs to be checked and tested on a product by product basis for the following most common undesirable behaviors:

Reduced dimming range Flickering of the lamp

Inconsistent performance based on the number and different types of LEDs connected to a single incandescentdimmer

Dimming LEDs offer the following advantages:

Saves energy, because less energy is used for reduced output levels.

Extends life; the electronic components run cooler. This not only extends the life of LEDs but also increases the life of the phosphor coating that is used to produce white light.

Helps designers create ambient lighting presets to create mood settings.

Increases flexibility in usage of space. A brightly lit space for reading or an office space can turn into a presentation/conference area by dimming.

Increases productivity by enabling individual control of lights in order to reduce eye strain and fatigue, or to improve concentration.

LEDs are controlled directly by signals coming from the central dimmer. They can also be designed to interpret other protocols like 1-10V, DMX, Ethernet or ZigBee signals from the central dimming system. The manufacturers of LEDs will specify which of the various protocols their devices can understand.

Analogue dimming is usually referred to as 1 - 10v dimming. In this case, a dc voltage is sent to the driver, which dims the LEDs in response to the voltage.
With digital dimming, the driver receives a digital signal which tells it how to respond. The advantage of digital dimming is that fixtures are addressable. You can also have many more different levels of light output when using digital dimming.

For applications where single colors and white LEDs are used, analogue or PWM dimming protocols can be used to switch or dim LEDs. For intelligent controls like creating dynamic effects, tuning of white light etc, DMX or Ethernet protocols can be used. Digital dimming works better with large numbers of luminaires.

This is usually due to incompatibility between the driver and the control system. When purchasing an LED product, it is important to use the correct driver type as specified by the manufacturer. It is also important to check that the LED is dimmable. Some retrofits are not.

50,000 hours would imply 5.7 years if the light is operated for 24 hours in a day, 7.6 years if the lights are on 18 hours per day and 11.4 years for 12 hours a day.

Unlike conventional light sources that reduce in output and eventually fail, LED products do not normally suddenly fail. Instead, the light output reduces over time.

The normal convention is to measure the life from when the output has reduced by 30%, i.e. when there is 70% light output remaining. This is often quoted as the L70 life and is measured in hours.

The thermal management of the LEDs. If LEDs come on a standalone chip, appropriate heat sinks have to be designed to prevent premature failure of LEDs.

The electrical stress:
Running LEDs at currents higher than specified make the LED run hot. This can happen with wrongly matched drivers. For example, if the driver produces 700mA but the LED needs 350mA, this will put stress onLED and reduce its lifespan.

Higher ambient temperatures than the ones that the LED is rated for will reduce its expected life.

Unlike discharge lamps, LEDs are semiconductors and their life span is not affected by the number of times they are turned on and off.

Typically, an LED will last four times longer than a CFL and 25 times longer than an incandescent source that puts out the same amount of light.

This may occur if you are using the same product from the same brand, with the same optics and hardware. However, in general, the nature of the components (like the optical system, the heat sink, the LED chip, and the driver) affects the output more than the wattage does. A 3watt LED luminaire from one manufacturer will have a different output to a 3watt LED luminaire from another manufacturer, even if the same LED chip is used. Hence, using a high quality chip alone does not guarantee better performance. Note that as the wattage increases, the efficiency drops slightly. An LEDdriven at 3W will emit slightly less than three times the output of one driven at 1W.

When comparing the lumen output between LEDs and conventional light sources, LEDs may have lower lumen value in many cases. However LEDs are directional light sources, all the lumens emitted from an LED are directed towards the task area. Conversely, conventional sources emit light in all directions. The light is then modulated in a given direction with optical systems like reflectors and lenses. The amount of lumens that falls in the intended task area from an LEDlight source is greater than that of a conventional light source.

Absolute photometry measures very precisely the lumens emitted by a specific luminaire, while relative photometry can be adjusted to measure light distribution by various lamps with different lumen outputs. Most LEDs are permanently fixed in the luminaire along with its optics.

Replacement in case of premature failure means replacing the whole luminaire and not just the light source. The lumen performance of LEDs is best evaluated, by considering the various accessories the light passes through (lenses, reflectors etc) before it falls on the surface to be lit. As a result, absolute photometry is the method usually used to measure LED performance. Note that some luminaires have replaceable LED modules, but the same arguments apply.

The lumen output of a LED is dependent on the thermal management / heat sink design, the electrical characteristics such as the junction and rated ambient temperature, the driver currents, and the optical system. This means that the light output is very much dependent on the design of the actual luminaire. This is unlike other light sources like HIDwhere the photometrics of a luminaire are fairly independent of the lamp used.

These terms do not have any photometric or engineering meaning. However, "cold lumens" is the light output of theLED chip alone when it is first switched on.
"Hot lumens", refers to the light output of the LED when it is fully warmed up in the luminaire.

Light emitting diodes produce light by the movement of electrons between the two terminals of diode, which occur by a process called electroluminescence. When a light emitting diode is electrically connected, electrons start moving at the junction of the N-type and P-type semiconductors within the diode. When there is a jump over of electrons at the p-n junction, the electron loses a portion of its energy. In regular diodes this energy loss is in the form of heat. However, in LEDs the specific type of N and P conductors produce photons (light) instead of heat. The amount of energy lost defines the color of light produced.

A typical LED is made with a chip, which is the semiconductor that produces the light when electrically connected. The chip is connected by a very thin bond wire to a lead electrical contact that acts as the cathode. The chip is bonded with a thermal heat sink and a ceramic base. The chip is enclosed by a lens that not only protects the chip, but also modulates the light beam to the desired angle, depending on the nature of the lens. For production of white light, the chips are coated with phosphors.

LEDs produce light by direct conversion of electrical energy to light energy. On the other hand incandescent light sources produce light by heating a filament until it grows red hot. Linear and compact fluorescent lamps use a UV discharge plus a phosphor to produce the light. HID lamps use the ionization of gases in a discharge tube which in turn produce photons.

No. LEDs directly convert electrical energy to photons. It is a one step process of electroluminescence that does not require time to reach maximum output. Other sources such as fluorescents or HID, work on discharge technology. This requires an arc to warm up and may take a few minutes to reach full output.

O-LEDs are organic light emitting diodes. They are made of carbon based films sandwiched between two electrodes; one is a metallic cathode and one is a transparent anode, which is usually transparent glass.

With the further increase in performance characteristics of LEDs and the advent of OLEDs the application sector ofLEDs has expanded. Below are some of the new uses of LEDs:

Luminous walls and ceilings

Transparent walls and partitions that turn opaque at

different times of the day.

Solar powered fabrics

Luminous garments

O-LEDs are thin, flat, two dimensional surfaces offering a soft, glare-free luminous surface. Some versions of OLED are flexible. They can be transparent, mirrored or diffused when not electrically connected.

LEDs are more efficient than most other light sources, so they usually consume less energy for a given task or at a spesific light output. Also, they do not contain hazardous materials such as toxic mercury.

Moreover, LEDs have a longer lifespan and hence reduce the frequency of disposal of lamps.

Many areas in developing countries use kerosene or bio-mass as fuel for lighting; these fuels degrade the environment and emit large amounts of CO2. LED technology provides light using minimal wattage that can be generated by micro power generators like solar panels and hydroelectric systems.

LEDs normally use less power for a given application compared topre traditional halogen and fluorescent sources. As such, the overall kW/hr consumption per year is less, this helps reduce the overall CO2 emissions.

LEDs are primarily made of electronic components like PCBs, diodes, semiconductors etc. Therefore, they must be treated in the same way that traditional electronics are treated. They collected separately from household wastes and must be treated the same as standard electronic equipment.

Most retrofits have the appearance of a conventional lamp and are used as direct replacement for the existing one. i.e. they have a screw or bayonet cap base. With downlights and spotlights, it's common to have a 50mm dia reflector lamp. The mains voltage ones are usually called GU10, which refers to the flattened pins on the base. However, some are available for 12V supply fed from a transformer, e.g. Direct replacements for 50mm dichroic LV downlights. These will have thinner pins and are often called MR16 or GU5.3 lamps.

No. You should check that the replacement unit will fit the luminaire. Many have slightly different dimensions from the lamp they are replacing. It may be necessary to get a sample of the retrofit lamp to ensure it fits your particular light fitting.

As with complete LED luminaires, it is important to ask the supplier for the lumen output and to compare this with the unit you are replacing. If it is a spotlight, compare the two lamps side by side. Poor quality sales literature often states the output from the LED chip and not the complete lamp.

Retrofit lamps are offered with various white light outputs, ranging from warm to cool. This is often indicated on the packaging. Typically, it might say “2700K Warm White” or “4000K Cool White”. The bigger the number, the Cooler is the appearance.

Overheating of LED lamps in retrofit scenarios could be a potential fire hazard. Overheating can cause damage to lamp sockets, circuitry and lamps, and in extreme circumstances, it can even melt fixtures and floor coverings.

The general answer is NO. The electronics in the retrofit will overheat and lead to a short lifecycle. A better solution is to use an LED module with a remote driver. Can linear LEDs be used as a substitute for T8 or T5 fluorescent lamps?

Most LED tubes, although they have the same size, lamp base as a linear fluorescent, and possibly a similar lumenoutput, do not have the same omni directional light distribution. Many luminaires emit 20%-30% less light output with narrower beam spreads when fitted with LEDs. This is especially true of troffers with reflectors that offer batwing (wide-spread) light distribution with fluorescents. This needs to be taken into account when considering the overall 30-50% less power usage by LEDs with increased system efficiencies. It is likely that the luminaire will need some rewiring and this should be done in conformance with the local electrical installation standards.

LEDs do not directly produce white light. There are two ways in which white light is produced from LEDs as below:

Using a blue LED with a phosphor coating to convert blue light to white light by a process called fluorescence. Combining red, blue and green LEDs to produce white light. White light is produced by varying the intensities of the individual red, blue and green chips.

Tunable white LEDs are light engines that combine individual chips to produce a range of CCT from warm white and cool white.

The color of light produced is dependent on the inorganic material used in the P-type and N-type semiconductors (organic material in the case of O-LED). Different inorganic materials in the semiconductor release different amounts of energy when the LED is connected to a power supply. The amount of energy released defines the color of the light produced. For example, red is a low energy light and blue is a high energy light.

Most insects are primarily attracted to Ultra-violet rays, which help them forage, navigate and select mates. For example, Indian moths are attracted to UV-365nm and green light-500nm. LEDs do not have UV content and hence do not attract many insects compared to conventional light sources.

Here are some of the aspects that need to be taken into consideration:

When Luminaire spacing and layout.

Ways to prevent a view of the light source and minimize glare.

Ventilation/cooling of LEDs

Wiring access

Access to LEDs in case of maintenance or replacement.

Switching / dimming capabilities, or control type and location.

Location of driver, if not integrated in luminaire.

The lamp base / holder screw fixing position.

The physical dimension of the LED lamp and how it fits into the existing housing. The electrical characteristics of LEDs compared to the existing system. (mains voltage, low voltage, control methods).

The location and size of the light emitting surface in relation to the luminaire reflector and in comparison to the original light source. The light distribution, lumen output and other photometric properties like color temperature in comparison to the original light source.

The heat generated by the LED during operation and the maximum operating temperature.

Lights built into wardrobes can be of the following types:

Low voltage LED lights with a magnetic switch that comes in two components; one is fixed onto the wardrobe door and the other to the wardrobe itself. When the door is opened the contact is broken and power is sent to the light.

PIR switches with an infra-red motion sensor that activates the light when the wardrobe is opened.

It is important to compare the spectral power distribution of the light source (SPD), the Color Rendering Index (CRI), Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) and the Color Quality Scale (CQS) of the light source relative to the nature of exhibits / displays to be lit. The illumination level needed within the exhibition and the hours of operation also need to be considered. This is a specialist area, and proper set up of lighting requires the advice of a consultant such as the curator.

It is easy to replace Halogen with LED Lamp. The norms to be followed are selection of suitable transformer.

Cut size of the surface where down-lighter need to be installed. For installation of down-lighter we need to put the back side of down-lighter inside the hollow cavity, so the size of the surface which needs to be cut is cutout dimension.

E. g. For cut-out size of dia.100mm we required 100 mm round hole to install the down-lighter. Mainly 2 types of down lighter available, Square Shape and Round Shape.

LED lights are highly energy efficient and produce high quality light with little heat. They produce 90% less heat compared to halogen lamps. LED lights are an eco-friendly form of lighting as less energy used means less CO2 emissions. Installing LED lights means that you can reduce the energy used for lighting by 80%.

Downlighters are safe in terms that LEDs get power supply through a driver which has a protection circuit for power fluctuation in terms of voltage and surge. So driver will fail before LED gets any abnormal power. The LED downlighters also comply with safety standard IEC 60598/ IS10322

LEDs are directional sources of light as opposed to the traditional luminaires, which are omni-directional. When LEDs are fitted with reflectors, much of the light at the center` of the beam passes out of the system without even touching the reflector. This reduces the scope of modulation of the beam of light and can cause of glare. Lenses, however, help guide virtually every ray of light emitted by the LED

The LED chip, or light engine produces heat. This needs to be dissipated as quickly as possible. This is normally by using a heat sink. This often has fins. Cool LEDs are more efficient than hot ones. They also have a longer life. Of course, higher power LEDs generally runs hotter than low power ones because of the extra heat to remove

IP (Ingress protection) ratings are commonly used to determine LED product suitability for various harsh, underwater or outdoor applications.

Performance can be verified by following aspects:

Aesthetic: Colour, Shape, Printing Quality/Text, Surface Finish, Cap type etc. as defined for the product.

Functional: Parameters like lumen, CCT, fitment, assembly of sub parts etc. as defined.

Dimensional: Dimensions of the product as defined.

No, CFLs are not dimmable. LED bulbs can be non-dimmable or dimmable depending on the driver circuit and dimming method used as LEDs are principally dimmable. You can use a dimmable LED lamp in a non-dimmable circuit. You should NOT use a non-dimmable lamp in a dimmable circuit as it may cause damage to the lamp and or circuit. Integral lamps are clearly marked as dimmable or non-dimmable on the packaging and on the lamp.

THD is the measurement of the distortion created from the equipment's current draw. True resistive loads, such as an incandescent light bulb, do not have THD. Equipment containing coils and capacitors, such as motors, drives, fluorescent lighting and HID lighting, have some measure of THD.

The total harmonic distortion (THD) is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present in a signal and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental frequency.

Harmonics are created by electronic equipment with nonlinear loads drawing in current in abrupt short pulses. The short pulses cause distorted current waveforms, which in turn cause harmonic currents to flow back into other parts of the power system.

Harmonics are caused by non-linear loads, that is loads that draw a non- sinusoidal current from a sinusoidal voltage source. Some examples of harmonic producing loads are electric arc furnaces, static VAR compensators, inverters, DC converters, switch-mode power supplies, and AC or DC motor drives.

In retail and display environments where the range of products change by the season, the colors can be changed to match the type of product on display. For example, electronic goods may require a cool white light while a warmer tone may be required for fabrics. When a fashion season has red as a theme, the store can utilize a color of light with more red in its spectrum to enhance and bring out the vibrancy of the display.

Underground stalactites are damaged by the heat of halogen lamps. LEDs, with their long lifecycle also require much less maintenance than traditional light sources.

Using LEDs in mining areas has the following benefits:

Better focus on work area

Safer environment due to low glare and LEDs being cool to touch

No start-up time

Being solid state the workplace is easier to make it explosion-proof and vibration-proof

LED can be powered with AC or DC and has longer battery

backup with option of charging battery with solar panels

LED lights can be installed with satellite connection and can have integrated motion sensors and GPS, which offers remote access to live information about usage, location, and condition along with offer further security features.

Green LEDs of wavelength 495nm along with red LEDs are useful for military pilots who have special devices that are made for night vision. Blue LEDs are useful for pilots who need to read maps at night. Special infra-red LEDs are used to light areas at night without making the target aware that they are being viewed. This is facilitated through special IR night vision equipment.

LED lighting, although more expensive than its incandescent predecessors in automobile lighting, works as a cost effective solution. This is because its digital features simplify wiring, controls and the installation process. LEDs offer high-quality light in terms of color-rendering and they provide lighting solutions that result in comfort and a more comfortable, enjoyable driving experience. However, the biggest advantage of LEDs is their long lifecycle and resistance to vibration.

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